Structural Engineering & Civil Engineering Informatics

Structural engineering is the branch of civil engineering that deals with large, modern buildings and similar structures. The focus of Civil engineering informatics is on fundamental methods, models and processes of civil engineering, as well as information technology. This provides the basis for the systematic mapping of problems to the computer in such a way that the potential of information technology can be fully exploited.

All aspects of structural engineering are provided for within the Division, including structural analysis and computational mechanics, concrete, steel and other structures, building materials with special reference to concrete technology and masonry and fire engineering. Facilities are available for the experimental and numerical examination of structures.

Instruction is provided and research is conducted to lead to improved design and construction of civil engineering structures. The field of Information Technology for Civil Engineers, which resides within this Division, provides for the extensive use of information and modelling in civil engineering.

Fields of specialisation within the Division include concrete technology, 3D printing, building materials and sustainability, fire engineering, structural reliability, steel structures, application of information technology, facilities management and building infrastructure. A well-equipped materials laboratory and a large structural laboratory with servo-hydraulic loading equipment and computerised data measurement systems supports advanced studies and research. Extensive computer facilities support structural analysis and information technology for civil engineers.

For specific research topics currently available, contact the Head of Division, Prof Celeste Viljoen.

For enquiries regarding laboratory testing services, contact Dr Riaan Combrinck.

The Institute for Structural Engineering (ISE), directed by Prof Gideon van Zijl undertakes advanced research and development in various fields of structural engineering, including the application of information technology in civil engineering. The Institute also offers specialist consultation services to industry.

In addition to commissioned research, industry is provided the opportunity to support academic research and to support training of specialists in the post-graduate programs. The research infrastructure of the Institute and of the University is extended at the same time.

Within the ISE, the Centre for Development of Sustainable Infrastructure (CDSI) and the Unit for Construction Materials (UCM) strive to be centres of excellence and top institutes for infrastructure development and construction materials in South Africa for teaching, research and consulting. Members include both staff and postgraduate students, with a wide network of local and international collaborators. Student training and teaching is the fundamental function of the CDSI and the UCM, but service to the industry by means of consulting and dissemination of information in the form of seminars, is paramount to ensure relevancy.

2019

Journal Articles

BEZUIDENHOUT SR, VAN ZIJL GPAG. Corrosion propagation in cracked reinforced concrete, toward determining residual service life. Structural Concrete 2019; 20(6):2183-2193.

CHO S, KRUGER PJ, ZERANKA S, VAN ZIJL GPAG. 3D printable concrete technology and mechanics. Concrete Beton 2019; 158(1682-6116):11-18.

CICIONE A, WALLS RS, BESHIR M, RUSH D. Full-scale informal settlement dwelling fire experiments and development of numerical models. FIRE TECHNOLOGY 2019; 55:1-34.

CICIONE A, WALLS RS, KAHANJI C. Experimental study of fire spread between multiple full-scale informal settlement dwellings. Fire Safety Journal 2019; 105:19-27.

COMBRINCK R, BOSHOFF WP. Tensile properties of plastic concrete and the influence of temperature and cyclic loading. Cement and Concrete Composites 2019; 97:300-311.

COMBRINCK R, KAYONDO M, LE ROUX BD, DE VILLIERS WI, BOSHOFF WP. Effect of various liquid admixtures on cracking of plastic concrete. Construction and Building Materials 2019; 202:139-153.

DE KOKER NPJ, VILJOEN C, DAY PW. Risk- Optimal sampling for reliability-based design. STRUCTURAL SAFETY 2019; 20:1-6.

DU PLESSIS A, BOSHOFF WP. A review of X-ray computed tomography of concrete and asphalt construction materials . Construction and Building Materials 2019; 199:637-651.

DU PLESSIS A, BOSHOFF WP. A review of X-ray computed tomography of concrete and asphalt construction materials. Construction and Building Materials 2019; 199:637-651.

FISCHER K, VILJOEN C, KOHLER J, FABER H. Optimal and acceptable re liabilities for structural design. STRUCTURAL SAFETY 2019; 76:149-161.

KAHANJI C, CICIONE A, WALLS RS. Fire Spread analysis for the 2017 Imizano Yethu informal settlement conflagration in South Africa. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 2019; 39:2-12.

KAYONDO M, COMBRINCK R, BOSHOFF WP. State-of-the-art review on plastic cracking of concrete. Construction and Building Materials 2019; 225:886-899.

KLOOS M, WALLS RS. Finite Element Modelling of the structural behaviour of a Novel Cellular Beam Non-Composite Steel Structure in Fire. International Journal of Steel Structures 2019; 19:1368-1380.

KOLAWOLE JT, COMBRINCK R, BOSHOFF WP. Measuring the thixotropy of conventional concrete: The influence of viscosity modifying agent, superplasticiser and water. Construction and Building Materials 2019; 225:853-867.

KRUGER PJ, CHO S, VILJOEN C, ZERANKA S, VAN ZIJL GPAG. 3D concrete printer parameter optimization for high rate digital construction avoiding plastic collapse. COMPOSITES PART B-ENGINEERING 2019; 183:1-11.

KRUGER PJ, ZERANKA S, VAN ZIJL GPAG. 3D concrete printing: A lower bound analytical model for buildability performance quantification. AUTOMATION IN CONSTRUCTION 2019; 106:1-14.

KRUGER PJ, ZERANKA S, VAN ZIJL GPAG. An Ab initio approach for thixotropy characterization of (nanoparticle – infused) 3D printable concrete. Construction and Building Materials 2019; 224(2019):372-386.

MARX H, WALLS RS. Thermal behaviour of a novel non-composite cellular beam floor system in the fire. Journal of Structural Fire Engineering 2019; 10:354-372.

MBEWE PBK, VAN ZIJL GPAG. Characterisation of the equivalent struts for macro-modelling of infilled masonry RC frames subjected to lateral load. JOURNAL OF STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING 2019; 145(5):1-13.

OLALUSI OB, VILJOEN C. Assessment of reliability of EN 1992-1-1 variable strut inclination method of shear design provisions for stirrup failure. Structural Concrete 2019; 20:1-13.

OLALUSI OB, VILJOEN C. Assessment of simplified and advanced models for shear resistance prediction of stirrup-reinforced concrete beams. ENGINEERING STRUCTURES 2019; 186:97-109.

OLALUSI OB, VILJOEN C. Model uncertainties and bias in SHEAR strength predictions of slender stirrup reinforced concrete beams. Structural Concrete 2019; 20:1-17.

PEREZ S, LENNER R. Bridge assessment reduction factors based on Monte Carlo routine with copulas. ENGINEERING STRUCTURES 2019; 198:1-12.

POURBEHI MS, VAN ZIJL GPAG, STRASHEIM JAVB. Analysis of combined action of seismic loads and alkali-silica reaction in concrete dams considering the key chemical-physical-mechanical factors and fluid-structure interaction. ENGINEERING STRUCTURES 2019; 195(2019):263-273.

POURBEHI MS, VAN ZIJL GPAG. Seismic Analysis of the Kleinplaas Dam Affected by Alkali- Silica Reaction Using a Chemo-Thermo-Mechanical finite Element Numerical Modeling Considering Fluid Structure Interaction. Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology 2019; 17(18):462-473.

VAN DER SPUY PF, LENNER R, DE WET T, CAPRANI C.C. Multiple lane reduction factors based on multiple lane weigh in motion data. Structures 2019; 20:543-549.

VAN DER SPUY PF, LENNER R. Towards a New Bridge Live Load Model for South Africa. Structural Engineering International: Journal of the International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering (IABSE) 2019; 29(2):292-298.

VAN ZIJL GPAG, DE BEER LR. Sprayed SHCC overlay for shear strengthening of unreinforced load bearing masonry. ADVANCES IN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING 2019; 22(5):1121-1135.

VAN ZIJL GPAG, DE JAGER DJA. Improved ductility of SHCC retrofitted unreinforced load bearing masonry. Journal of Building Engineering 2019; 24(2019):1-9.

WALLS RS, EKSTEEN R, CICIONE A. Appraisal of fire safety interventions and strategies for informal settlements in South Africa. Disaster Prevention and Management 2019; 28:343-358.

WALLS RS, VILJOEN C, DE CLERCQ H. A nonlinear, beam finite element with variable, eccentric neutral axis. ENGINEERING STRUCTURES 2019; 187:341-351.

WALLS RS, VILJOEN C, DE CLERCQ H. Parametric investigation into the cross-sectional stress-strain behaviour, stiffness and thermal forces of steel, concrete and composite beams exposed to fire. Journal of Structural Fire Engineering 2019; 10:1-18.

ZERANKA S, VAN ZIJL GPAG. Dilatant transverse pull-out response of hooked-end steel fibres from concrete, a novel test method. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering 2019; 31(11):1-9.

International Proceedings

BAKKER FP, VILJOEN C. An analysis of South African wind gust data in the context of the built environment. In: Zingoni A (ed.) The Seventh International Conference on Structural Engineering, Mechanics and Computation, London, United Kingdom, Taylor and Francis Group 2019: 2352-2357.

BASSON SE, LENNER R. Reliability verification of bridges designed according to TMH-7. In: Zingoni A (ed.) The Seventh International Conference on Structural Engineering, Mechanics and Computation, London, United Kingdom, Taylor and Francis Group 2019: 1865-1870.

BESSINGER JMH, COMBRINCK R. Influence of supplementary cementitious materials and superplasticisers on the rheological properties of concrete. In: BOSHOFF WP, COMBRINCK R, Mechtcherine V, Wyrzykowski M (eds.) 3rd International Conference on the application of superabsorbent polymers, Skukuza, South Africa, Springer 2019: 167-175.

BESTER FA, VAN DEN HEEVER M, KRUGER PJ, ZERANKA S, VAN ZIJL GPAG. Benchmark structures for 3D concrete printing. Proceedings of the FIB Symposium 2019, Krakow, Poland, Federation Int. du Beton 2019: 305-312.

CHO S, KRUGER PJ, VAN ROOYEN AS, ZERANKA S, VAN ZIJL GPAG. Rheology of 3D Printable Lightweight Foam Concrete Incorporating Nano- Silica. In: Mechtcherine V (ed.) RheoCon2 & SCC9, Dresden, Germany, Springer 2019: 373-381.

CHO S, KRUGER PJ, ZERANKA S, VAN ROOYEN AS, VAN ZIJL GPAG. Mechanical evaluation of 3D printable nano-silica incorporated fibre-reinforced lightweight foam concrete. 10th International Conference on Fracture Mechanics of Concrete and Concrete Structures (IA-FraMCoS 2019), Bayonne, France, CRC Press 2019: 1-7.

CICIONE A, WALLS RS. Estimating time to structural collapse of informal settlement dwellings based on structural fire engineering principles. The Seventh International Conference on Structural Engineering, Mechanics and Computation, London, United Kingdom, Taylor and Francis Group 2019: 1909-1914.

CICIONE A, WALLS RS. Towards a Simplified Fire Dynamic Simulator Model to Analyse Fire Spread Between Multiple Informal Settlement Dwellings Based on Full-Scale Experiments. 15th International Fire Science & Engineering Conference, London, United Kingdom, 000000000 2019: 539-552.

DO AMARAL DR, VAN ROOYEN AS. Using existing models and finite element analysis to predict the long-term deformation of lightweight foamed concrete. In: Zingoni A (ed.) The Seventh International Conference on Structural Engineering, Mechanics and Computation, London, United Kingdom, Taylor and Francis Group 2019: 1622-1626.

DUNN TPA, WALLS RS. Demolition engineering: Determination of the axial load capacity of steel columns weakened by horizontal and diagonal cuts. In: Zingoni A (ed.) The Seventh International Conference on Structural Engineering, Mechanics and Computation, London, United Kingdom, Taylor and Francis Group 2019: 2209-2214.

HOLICKY M, VILJOEN C, RETIEF JV. Assessment of existing structures. In: Zingoni A (ed.) The Seventh International Conference on Structural Engineering, Mechanics and Computation, London, United Kingdom, Taylor and Francis Group 2019: 2109-2114.

KOTZE M, VAN ROOYEN GC, VAN ZIJL GPAG. Retrofitting unreinforced masonry buildings with a strain-hardening cement-based composite to enhance seismic resistance. 10th International Conference on Fracture Mechanics of Concrete and Concrete Structures (IA-FraMCoS 2019), CRC Press 2019: 1-7.

KRUGER PJ, VAN DEN HEEVER M, CHO S, ZERANKA S, VAN ZIJL GPAG. High-performance 3d printable concrete enhanced with nanomaterials. International conference on sustainable Meterials, Systems and Structures (SMSS2019), Rovinj, Croatia (local name: Hrvatska), Rilem 2019: 541-548.

KRUGER PJ, ZERANKA S, VAN ZIJL GPAG. Quantifying Constructability Performance of 3D Concrete Printing vi Rheology-Based Analytical Models. In: Mechtcherine V (ed.) RheoCon2 & SCC9, Dresden, Germany, Springer 2019: 400-408.

MEYER MW, LENNER R, VAN DER SPUY PF. The development of a vehicle-bridge interaction model for South African traffic. In: Zingoni A (ed.) The Seventh International Conference on Structural Engineering, Mechanics and Computation, London, United Kingdom, Taylor and Francis Group 2019: 1853-1858.

MITCHELL DC, WALLS RS. Demolition engineering: Lateral load carrying capacity of weakened steel beams. In: Zingoni A (ed.) The Seventh International Conference on Structural Engineering, Mechanics and Computation, London, United Kingdom, Taylor and Francis Group 2019: 2215-2220.

MOELICH GM, COMBRINCK R. Used Oil as an Admixture to Improve the Rheological Properties of Concrete. In: BOSHOFF WP, COMBRINCK R, Mechtcherine V (eds.) 3rd International Conference on the Application of Superabsorbent Polymers and other New Admixtures towards smart concrete, Kruger national Park, South Africa, Rilem 2019: 184-191.

PEREZ S, LENNER R. Evaluating the influence of daily truck traffic flow on load effects using Monte Carlo simulations. In: Zingoni A (ed.) The Seventh International Conference on Structural Engineering, Mechanics and Computation, London, United Kingdom, Taylor and Francis Group 2019: 2165-2169.

RETIEF JV, VILJOEN C, HOLICKY M. Standardized basis for assessment of existing structures. In: Zingoni A (ed.) The Seventh International Conference on Structural Engineering, Mechanics and Computation, London, United Kingdom, Taylor and Francis Group 2019: 2120-2125.

RETIEF JV, VILJOEN C. Advances in the reliability basis of structural design. In: Zingoni A (ed.) The Seventh International Conference on Structural Engineering, Mechanics and Computation, London, United Kingdom, Taylor and Francis Group 2019: 2299-2304.

SAAYMAN RL, BASSON GR. Energy Disspation by Flares at uncontrolled concrete dam Spillways with high unit Discharges. HYDRO 2019 Porto, Portugal, Porto, Portugal, HYDRO 2019 2019: 1-10.

STONE L, COMBRINCK R. Compatibility between cement and superplasticiser in combination with fines, gypsum and fly ash. In: BOSHOFF WP, COMBRINCK R, Mechtcherine V, Wyrzykowski M (eds.) 3rd International Conference on the Application of Superabsorbent Polymers and other New Admixtures towards smart concrete, National Kruger Park, South Africa, Rilem 2019: 200-208.

VAN DEN HEEVER M, BESTER FA, KRUGER PJ, VAN ZIJL GPAG. Effect of silicon carbide (SiC) nanoparticles on 3D printability of cement-based materials. In: Zingoni A (ed.) The Seventh International Conference on Structural Engineering, Mechanics and Computation, London, United Kingdom, Taylor and Francis Group 2019: 1616-1621.

VAN DER SPUY PF, LENNER R, DE WET T, CAPRANI C.C. Multilane reduction factors based on WIM data. In: Zingoni A (ed.) The Seventh International Conference on Structural Engineering, Mechanics and Computation, London, United Kingdom, Taylor and Francis Group 2019: 1848-1849.

VAN DER SPUY PF, LENNER R, MEYER MW. Dynamic amplification factor for South African bridges. In: Zingoni A (ed.) The Seventh International Conference on Structural Engineering, Mechanics and Computation, London, United Kingdom, Taylor and Francis Group 2019: 1859-1858.

VAN DER SPUY PF, LENNER R. Establishing the effect ot the tail length on extrapolation when fitted to wim data. SMSS 2019, Rovinj, Croatia (local name: Hrvatska), RILEM Publications S.A.R.L 2019: 153-159.

VAN DER SPUY PF, NIEHAUS H. Design of the new Olifants river arch bridge in the Western Cape province of South Africa. In: Zingoni A (ed.) The Seventh International Conference on Structural Engineering, Mechanics and Computation, London, United Kingdom, Taylor and Francis Group 2019: 1871-1875.

WALLS RS, CICIONE A. Africa: The Next Frontier For Fire Safety Engineering?. 15th International Fire Science & Engineering Conference, London, United Kingdom, Intersciencecommunictions Ltd 2019: 819-829.

WEST-RUSSELL MA, VILJOEN C, VAN DER KLASHORST E. An assessment of the inherent reliability of SANS 10162-2 for cold-Formed steel columns using the direct strength method. In: Caspeele R, Taerwe L, Frangopol DM (eds.) International Association for Life-Cycle Civil Engineering (IALCCE), Ghent, Belgium, Taylor and Francis Group 2019: 1-6.

National Proceedings

Books

WALLS RS, ET. Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction. United Nations, Switzerland, United Nations 2019:472 pp.

Research Reports

RUSH D, GIBSON L, WALLS RS. Fire risk reduction on the margins of an urbanizing world. 2019: 25 pp.

2018

Journal Articles

BABAFEMI AJ, DU PLESSIS A, BOSHOFF WP. Pull-out creep mechanism of synthetic macro fibres under a sustained load. Construction and Building aterials 2018; 174:466-473.

BOTHA J, RETIEF JV, VILJOEN C. Reliability assessment of the South African wind load design formulation. Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  2018; 60(3):30-40.

BOTHA J, RETIEF JV, VILJOEN C. Uncertainties in the South African wind load design formulation. Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  2018; 60(3):16-29.

COMBRINCK R, STEYL L, BOSHOFF WP. Influence of concrete depth and surface finishing on the cracking of plastic concrete. Construction and Building Materials 2018; 175:621-628.

COMBRINCK R, STEYL L, BOSHOFF WP. Interaction between settlement and shrinkage cracking in plastic concrete. Construction and Building Materials 2018; 185:1-11.

DE KOKER NPJ, DAY PW. Assessment of reliability-based design for a spectrum of geotechnical design problems. PROCEEDINGS OF THE INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS-GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING 2018; 171(2):147-159.

DE VILLIERS N, VAN ROOYEN GC, MIDDENDORF M. Sewer network design layout optimisation using ant colony algorithms. Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering 2018; 60(3):2-15.

DUNN TPA, VAN ZIJL GPAG, VAN ROOYEN AS. Investigating a reinforced lightweight foamed concrete walling system for low-rise residential buildings in moderate seismic regions. Journal of Building Engineering 2018; 20:663-670.

LENNER R, VILJOEN C, VAN NIEROP SC. A comparative study of target reliability index derivation for reinforced concrete structures governed by serviceability limit state. Structural Concrete 2018; 19(6):1-8.

LERCH JO, BESTER HL, VAN ROOYEN AS, COMBRINCK R, DE VILLIERS WI, BOSHOFF WP. The effect of mixing on the performance of macro synthetic fibre reinforced concrete. CEMENT AND CONCRETE RESEARCH 2018; 103:130-139.

MBEWE PBK, VAN ZIJL GPAG. A simplified non-linear structural analysis of reinforced concrete frames with masonry infill subjected to seismic loading. ENGINEERING STRUCTURES 2018; 177:630-640.

ODENDAAL CM, BABAFEMI AJ, COMBRINCK R, DE VILLIERS WI, BOSHOFF WP. Evaluation of locally available synthetic macro fibres in a single-fibre pullout test in concrete. Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering  2018; 60(1):21-30.

OLIVIER G, COMBRINCK R, KAYONDO M, BOSHOFF WP. Combined effect of nano-silica, super absorbent polymers, and synthetic fibres on plastic shrinkage cracking in concrete. Construction and Building Materials 2018; 192:85-98.

PAUL SC, VAN ROOYEN AS, VAN ZIJL GPAG, PETRIK L. Properties of cement-based composites using nanoparticles: A comprehensive review. Construction and Building Materials 2018; 189:1019-1034.

PAUL SC, VAN ZIJL GPAG, TAN MJ, GIBSON I. A review of 3D concrete printing systems and materials properties: current status and future research prospects. Rapid Prototyping Journal 2018; 24(4):784-798.

VAN JAARSVELDT WJ, WALLS RS, VAN DER KLASHORST E. Experimental testing and finite element modelling of steel columns weakened to facilitate building demolition. International Journal of Steel Structures 2018; 18(5):1483-1496.

VAN ZIJL GPAG, DE BEER LR. Sprayed strain-hardening cement-based composite overlay for shear strengthening of unreinforced load-bearing masonry. ADVANCES IN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING 2018; 22(3):1-15.

VAN ZIJL GPAG, PAUL SC. A novel link of the time scale in accelerated chloride-induced corrosion test in reinforced SHCC. Construction and Building Materials 2018; 167:15-19.

WALLS RS, VILJOEN C, DE CLERCQ H. Analysis of Structures in Fire as Simplified Skeletal Frames Using Customised Beam Finite Element. FIRE TECHNOLOGY 2018; 54(6):1655-1682.

International Proceedings

BEZUIDENHOUT SR, VAN ZIJL GPAG. Influence of crack spacing on corrosion rate in reinforced concrete. 2017 fib Symposium; HIGH TECH CONCRETE: Where technology and engineering meet, Maastricht, Netherlands, Springer 2018: 2109-2117.

DE JAGER DJA, VAN ZIJL GPAG. Computational assessment of SHCC overlay retrofitting of unreinforced load bearing masonry for seismic resistance. Symposium on Concrete Modelling (CONMOD2018), Delft, Netherlands, RILEM Publications S.A.R.L. 2018: 194-204.

DE VILLIERS WI, FOURIE J, BOSHOFF WP. Numerical Modelling of Alternative Masonry Units. Symposium on Concrete Modelling (CONMOD2018), delft, Netherlands, RILEM Publications S.A.R.L. 2018: 247-258.

DE VILLIERS WI, PAGEL CL, ROBINS C, POTGIETER B, BOSHOFF WP. Thermal testing of alternative masonry walls. In: Milani G, Taliercio A, Garrity S (eds.) 10th International Masonry Conference, Milan, Italy, The International Masonry Society 2018: 1302-1314.

DENYS FJM, BASSON GR. Transient hydrodynamics of piano key weirs . 7th International Symposium on hydraulic Structures, Aachen, Germany, IAHR 2018: 1-10.

DIEKMANN MA, COMBRINCK R, BOSHOFF WP. Creating a low embodied carbon concrete with conventional concrete properties. 4th International Conference on Service Life Design for Infrastructures (SLD4), delft, Netherlands, RILEM Publications S.A.R.L. 2018: 456-466.

FATAAR H, COMBRINCK R, BOSHOFF WP. Preliminary study on single fibre pull-out fatigue resistance of fibre reinforced concrete. 4th International Conference on Service Life Design for Infrastructures (SLD4), delft, Netherlands, RILEM Publications S.A.R.L. 2018: 769-781.

GIBSON LA, WHEELER O, CAIRNS R, WALLS RS, RUSH D. Fire detection in informal settlement. SPIE Remote Sensing 2018, Washington, USA, SPIE 2018: 1-10.

HAAS TN. Evaluation of fuel station canopy structures subjected to seismicity. In: Pitilakis K (ed.) 16th European Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Greece, Springer International Publishing AG 2018: 1-10.

KRUGER PJ, CHO S, ZERANKA S, VAN ZIJL GPAG. Multi-physics approach for improved thixotropy of cement-based materials for 3DPC. 1st International Conference on 3D Construction Printing (3DcP), EDP Science 2018: 8.

MUZOFA TD, VAN ZIJL GPAG, DAY PW. Computational modelling of soil-structure interaction towards reduced concrete foundation volume for tall wind turbine towers. 2017 fib Symposium; HIGH TECH CONCRETE: Where technology and engineering meet, Maastricht, Netherlands, Springer 2018: 1380-1388.

OLAWUYI BJ, BOSHOFF WP. Influence of superabsorbent polymer on the splitting tensile strength and fracture energy of high-performance concrete. International Conference on Concrete Repair, Rehabilitation and Retrofitting (ICCRRR 2018), France, EDP Science 2018: 7.

POURBEHI MS, VAN ZIJL GPAG, STRASHEIM JAVB. Modelling of Alkali Silica Reaction in concrete structures for rehabilitation intervention. International Conference on Concrete Repair, Rehabilitation and Retrofitting (ICCRRR 2018), France, EDP Science 2018: 11.

POURBEHI MS, VAN ZIJL GPAG, STRASHEIM JAVB. Seismic analysis of concrete dams affected by alkali silica reaction considering fluid-structures-foundation interaction. In: Schlangen E, de Schutter G (eds.) Symposium on Concrete Modelling (CONMOD2018), Paris, France, RILEM Publications S.A.R.L. 2018: 478-489.

SCHRECKER M, VILJOEN D, VAN DER SPUY PF. Case study of concrete repairs on jetty in Port Nolloth, Northern Cape. International Conference on Concrete Repair, Rehabilitation and Retrofitting (ICCRRR 2018), Cape Town, South Africa, EDP Science 2018: 1-8.

VAN DER SPUY PF, LENNER R. Developing a new bridge live load model for South Africa. 9th International Conference on Bridge Maintenance, Safety and Management, Melbourne, Australia, IABMAS 2018: 1405-1410.

VAN DER SPUY PF, NIEHAUS H. Strengthening, rehabilitation and widening of the existing arch bridge on national route 7 over the Olifants River, South Africa. International Conference on Concrete Repair, Rehabilitation and Retrofitting (ICCRRR 2018), Rondebosch, South Africa, EDP Science 2018: 5.

VAN ZIJL GPAG, BEZUIDENHOUT SR, VAN ROOYEN AS. Chloride-induced corrosion of cracked cement-based composites. 4th International RILEM Conference;Strain- Hardening Cement-Based Composites SHCC4, Dresden, Germany, Springer 2018: 643-650.

VAN ZIJL GPAG, BOSHOFF WP. The effect of crack patterns on the corrosion of steel reinforced SHCC. 4th International RILEM Conference;Strain- Hardening Cement-Based Composites SHCC4, Dresden, Germany, Springer 2018: 565-572.

VAN ZIJL GPAG, KRUGER PJ, CHO S, ZERANKA S. 3D printing polymer fibre concrete. International Inorganic-Bonded Fiber Composites Conference, Cape Town, South Africa, IIBCC 2018: 5-14.

VAN ZIJL GPAG, VAN ROOYEN AS, MUBATAPASANGO MS, DUNN TPA, GRAFE J. Durability and bond of reinforced lightweight foamed concrete. 2017 fib Symposium; HIGH TECH CONCRETE: Where technology and engineering meet, Maastricht, Netherlands, Springer 2018: 2185-2193.

VAN ZIJL GPAG, VAN ROOYEN AS. Developing reinforced foam concrete as a composite material for durable structural application. 4th Brazilian Conference on Composite Materials, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Civil and Environmental Engineering Department – PUC-Rio 2018: 216-224.

VISSER G, IJSELMUIJDEN KV, KLAMER E, VAN ZIJL GPAG. Retrofit and Renovation of Concrete Bridges with Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP): The Third Alternative. International Conference on Concrete Repair, Rehabilitation and Retrofitting (ICCRRR 2018), P.A. de Courtabœuf, France, EDP Science 2018: 7.

ZERANKA S, VAN ZIJL GPAG. Characterising the shear behaviour of steel fibre-reinforced concrete. In: Meschke G, Pichler B, Rots J (eds.) Computational Modelling of Concrete Structures Euro-C 2018, Bad Hofgastein, Austria, CRC Press/Balkema 2018: 605-614.

ZERANKA S, VAN ZIJL GPAG. Empirical and numerical modelling of the direct shear behaviour of steel fibre-reinforced concrete utilising composite and single fibre transverse pull-out data. Symposium on Concrete Modelling (CONMOD2018), Delft, Netherlands, RILEM Publications S.A.R.L. 2018: 205-216.

ZERANKA S, VAN ZIJL GPAG. Steel fibre-reinforced concrete: Multi-scale characterization towards numerical modelling. International Conference on Concrete Repair, Rehabilitation and Retrofitting (ICCRRR 2018), Cape Town, South Africa, EDP Sciences 2018: 1-9.

National Proceedings

POURBEHI MS, VAN ZIJL GPAG, STRASHEIM JAVB. Numerical Modelling of the Alkali Silica Reaction affected kleinplaas dam considering anisotropic swelling and concrete material deterioration. SANCOLD Conference 2018, Somerset West, South Africa, SANCOLD 2018: 30-38.

2017

Journal Articles

ALAUD SM, VAN ZIJL GPAG. Combined Action of Mechanical pre-cracks and ASR strain in concrete. Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology 2017;15(4):151-164.

BABAFEMI AJ, BOSHOFF WP. Pull-out response of macro synthetic fibre from concrete matrix: Effect of loading rate and embedment length. CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING MATERIALS 2017; 135:590-599.

BABAFEMI AJ, NIEUWOUDT P, BOSHOFF WP. Comparative Evaluation of the time-dependant deformations of cracked steel fibre and Synthetic macro fibre reinforced concrete in tension. Concrete Beton 2017; 151(1682-6116):12-19.

DE VILLIERS JP, VAN ZIJL GPAG, VAN ROOYEN AS. Bond of deformed steel reinforcement in lightweight foamed Concrete. Structural Concrete 2017; 18(3):496-506.

DE VILLIERS N, VAN ROOYEN GC, MIDDENDORF M. Sewer network design: Heuristic algorithm for hydraulic optimisation. Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering 2017; 59(3):48-56.

GERBER JD, VAN ZIJL GPAG. Alternative wall-to-slab connection systems in reinforced concrete structures. Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering 2017; 59(3):36-47.

GOLIGER AM, RETIEF JV, KRUGER A. Review of Climatic Input Data for Wind Load Design in Accordance with SANS 10160-3. Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering 2017; 59(4):2-11.

KRUGER A, RETIEF JV, GOLIGER AM. Development of an Updated Fundamental Basic Wind Speed Map for SANS 10160-3. Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering 2017; 59(4):12-25.

LENNER R, DE WET G, VILJOEN C. Traffic Characteristics and Bridge Loading in South Africa. Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering 2017; 59(4):34-46.

LENNER R, SYKORA M. Partial factors for imposed loads in areas for storage and industrial use. Structure and Infrastructure Engineering 2017; 13(11):1425-1436.

NIEUWOUDT P, BABAFEMI AJ, BOSHOFF WP. The response of cracked steel fibre reinforced concrete under various sustained stress levels on both the macro and single fibre level. CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING MATERIALS 2017; 156:828-843.

NIEUWOUDT P, BOSHOFF WP. Time-dependent Pull-out Behaviour of Hooked-end Steel Fibres in Concrete. Cement and Concrete Composites 2017; 79:133-147.

OLAWUYI BJ, BOSHOFF WP. Influence of SAP content and curing age on air void distribution of high-performance concrete using 3D volume analysis. CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING MATERIALS 2017; 135:580-589.

PAUL SC, BABAFEMI AJ, CONRADIE K, VAN ZIJL GPAG. Applied voltage on corrosion mass loss and cracking behaviour of steel reinforced SHCC and mortar specimens. JOURNAL OF MATERIALS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING 2017; 29(5):04016272-1 to 04016272-9.

PAUL SC, VAN ZIJL GPAG. Corrosion Deterioration of Steel in Cracked SHCC. International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials 2017; 11(3):557-572.

VAN ZIJL GPAG, BADENHORST AJ. Cyclic delamination failure in CFRP-strengthened reinforced concrete beams. Concrete Beton 2017; 148:18-25.

WALLS RS, OLIVIER G, EKSTEEN R. Informal settlement fires in South Africa: Fire engineering overview and full-scale tests on ‘shacks’. FIRE SAFETY JOURNAL 2017; 91:997-1006.

WALLS RS, VILJOEN C, DE CLERCQ H, CLIFTON C. Reliability Analysis of the Slab Panel Method (SPM) for the Design of Composite Steel Floors in Severe Fires. Journal of Structural Fire Engineering 2017; 8(1):84-103.

HAAS TN, SOLMS MN. Alternative Approach to Analysing Infrastructure Using Limited Acceleration Time History Analysis. International Journal of Structural and Civil Engineering Research 2017; 6(2):144-148.

International Proceedings

BABAFEMI AJ, BOSHOFF WP. Pull-out Phenomenon of Synthetic Macro Fibres from a Cementitious Matrix. In: Santhanam M, Gettu R, Pillai R.G., Nayar S.K. (eds.) International Conference on Advances in Construction Materials and Systems, Chennai, India, RILEM Publications S.A.R.L 2017: 367-375.

BESTER HL, BOSHOFF WP, VILJOEN C. Initial Study on Determining the Design Values of Macro Synthetic FRC for Floors-on-Grade. In: Santhanam M, Gettu R, Pillai R.G., Nayar S.K. (eds.) International Conference on Advances in Construction Materials and Systems, Chennai, India, RILEM Publications S.A.R.L 2017: 201-210.

BOTHA J, RETIEF JV, VILJOEN C. Hierarchical Bayesian wind load models for reliability assessment and calibration of standards. In: Bucher C, Ellingwood B.R., Frangopol D.M. (eds.) 12th International Conference on Structural Safety and Reliability  (ICOSSAR2017), Vienna, Austria, TUVerlag 2017: 2470-2479.

COMBRINCK R, STEYL L, BOSHOFF WP. Influence of depth on the cracking of plastic concrete. In: Staquet S, Aggelis D (eds.) 2nd International RILEM/COST Conference on Early Age Cracking and Serviceability in Cement-based Materials and Structures, Brussels, Belgium, RILEM Publications S.A.R.L 2017: 843-848.

DUNN TPA, VAN ROOYEN AS, VAN ZIJL GPAG. Reinforced Lightweight Foamed Concrete for Seismically Resistant Low-rise Residential Buildings. In: Santhanam M, Gettu R, Pillai R.G., Nayar S.K. (eds.) International Conference on Advances in Construction Materials and Systems, Chennai, India, RILEM Publications S.A.R.L 2017: 269-277.

HANEKOM CH, STRASHEIM JAVB. Risk Assessment For The Importation Of Bitumen For Road Construction Into South Africa. The Eleventh Built Environment Conference, Durban, South Africa, Association of Schools of Construction of Southern Africa 2017: 540-533.

KHAN MY, KOLAWOLE JT, BOSHOFF WP, COMBRINCK R. Influence of relaxation and cyclic loading on the tensile material properties of plastic concrete. In: Staquet S, Aggelis D (eds.) 2nd International RILEM/COST Conference on Early Age Cracking and Serviceability in Cement-based Materials and Structures, Brussels, Belgium, RILEM Publications S.A.R.L 2017: 379-384.

LENNER R, MANAS P, SYKORA M. Reliability assessment of existing bridges for military use- Appropriate values of partial factors for traffic loads. 2017 International Conference on Military Technologies (ICMT), Brno, Czech Republic, IEEE 2017: 246-251.

MCLEOD CH, VILJOEN C, RETIEF JV. Determining model uncertainty associated with concrete crack models for members in flexure. 15th International Probabilistic Workshop & 10th Dresdner Probablistik Workshop, Dresden, Germany, TUDpress 2017: 261-270.

MCLEOD CH, VILJOEN C, RETIEF JV. Determining model uncertainty associated with concrete crack models for members in tension. 15th International Probabilistic Workshop & 10th Dresdner Probablistik Workshop, Dresden, Germany, TUDpress 2017: 271-281.

MUBATAPASANGO MS, VAN ROOYEN AS. Effect of Surface Protection on Carbonation Induced Corrosion in Reinforced Foamed Concrete. International Conference on Advances in Construction Materials and Systems (ICAMS 2017), Chennai, India, RILEM Publications S.A.R.L 2017: 179- 188.

OLALUSI OB, VILJOEN C. Towards Effective General Probabilistic Model Representation (GMP) for Shear Resistance. In: Bucher C, Ellingwood B.R., Frangopol D.M. (eds.) 12th International Conference on Structural Safety and Reliability (ICOSSAR2017), Vienna, Austria, TU-Verlag 2017: 612- 620.

OLAWUYI BJ, BOSHOFF WP. Influence of Superabsorbent Polymers (SAP) on Fresh and Early-age Properties of High- Performance Concrete. In: Tagnit-Hamou A (ed.) 10th ACI/RILEM International Conference on Cementitious Materials and Alternative Binders for Sustainable Concrete, Montreal, Canada, American Concrete Institute 2017: 1-12.

RETIEF JV, HOLICKY M, VILJOEN C. International practice and standardization of the basis of structural design. In: Bucher C, Ellingwood B.R., Frangopol D.M. (eds.) 12th International Conference on Structural Safety and Reliability (ICOSSAR2017), Vienna, Austria, TU-Verlag 2017: 1055- 1064.

SYKORA M, DIAMANTIDIS D, RETIEF JV, VILJOEN C, ROZSAS A. On Risk-Based Design of Structures Exposed to Changing Climatic Action. The Fifth International Symposium of Life-Cycle Engineering IALCCE 2016 (Life-Cycle Engineering Systems: Emphasis on Sustainable Civil Infrastructure), Delft, Netherlands, Taylor & Francis Group 2017: 1366-1373.

VAN NIEROP SC, VILJOEN C, LENNER R. Target reliability of concrete structures governed by serviceability limit state design. In: Voigt M, Proske D, Graf W, ET AL (eds.) 15th International Probabilistic Workshop & 10th Dresdner Probablistik Workshop, Dresden, Netherlands, TUDpress 2017: 293- 302.

VAN ROOYEN AS, VAN ZIJL GPAG. Chloride Profiling of Integral and Non-Ingeral Surfaced Treated Foamed Concrete. In: Santhanam M, Gettu R, Pillai R.G., Nayar S.K. (eds.) International Conference on Advances in Construction Materials and Systems (ICAMS 2017), Chennai, India, RILEM Publications S.A.R.L 2017: 11-16.

WALLS RS, ZWEIG PJ. Towards sustainable slums: understanding fire engineering in informal settlements. Advanced Technologies for Sustainable Systems, Cairo, Egypt, Springer 2017: 93-98.

WALLS RS. Demolition of steel structures: structural engineering solutions for a more sustainable construction industry. Advanced Technologies for Sustainable Systems, Cairo, Egypt, Springer 2017: 3-9.

Chapters in Books

KOBAYASHI K, PAUL SC, VAN ZIJL GPAG. Reinforcing Bar Corrosion. In: VAN ZIJL GPAG, Slowik V (eds.) A Framework for Durability Design with Strain-Hardening Cement-Based Composites (SHCC), Springer, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 2017: 147-170.

MECHTCHERINE V, ALTMANN F, VAN ZIJL GPAG. Durability and Service Life Design Concepts for Structures and (Non-)Structural Members Made of or Strengthened/Repaired with SHCC. In: VAN ZIJL GPAG, Slowik V (eds.) A Framework for Durability Design with Strain-Hardening Cement-Based Composites (SHCC), Springer, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 2017: 171-200.

SCHLANGEN E, VAN ZIJL GPAG, KABELE P. Chemical Processes. In: VAN ZIJL GPAG, Slowik V (eds.) A Framework for Durability Design with Strain- Hardening Cement-Based Composites (SHCC), Springer, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 2017: 79-100.

SLOWIK V, LUKOVIC M., WAGNER C, VAN ZIJL GPAG. Behaviour of Bonded SHCC Overlay Systems. In: VAN ZIJL GPAG, Slowik V (eds.) A Framework for Durability Design with Strain-Hardening Cement-Based Composites (SHCC), Springer, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 2017: 125-146.

VAN ZIJL GPAG, BOSHOFF WP, WAGNER C, SLOWIK V. Introduction: Crack Distribution and Durability of SHCC. In: VAN ZIJL GPAG, Slowik V (eds.) A Framework for Durability Design with Strain-Hardening Cement-Based Composites (SHCC), Springer, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 2017: 1-26.

WAGNER C, SLOWIK V, VAN ZIJL GPAG, BOSHOFF WP, PAUL SC, MECHTCHERINE V, KOBAYASHI K. Transfer of Fluids, Gases and Ions in and Through Cracked and Uncracked Composites. In: VAN ZIJL GPAG, Slowik V (eds.) A Framework for Durability Design with Strain-Hardening Cement- Based Composites (SHCC), Springer, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 2017: 27-58.

Gallery